Kamis, 07 Januari 2010

Personal and Social Development of the Child

As individuals, human beings grow and develop. Growth is a process of quantitative change within the individual, for example, from small to large. While development is a process of change within the individual qualities. Growth and development of a person different from one another. The difference is caused by many factors that influence the emergence of problems in each stage of development and how to control these problems. Therefore the main task of an educator is to provide facilities and assist children in dealing with problems in every stage of development.
Every process of development of each individual has a unique pattern, in which no single individual identical. Therefore, each child will grow and develop as a unique individual. As a process, individual development is influenced by many factors. In general, the factors that a person is mempengaruh genetic factors and social factors. Genetic factors are factors within the individual who inherited from his parents include talent, innate, potential psychological and physical. While social factors are outside the individual factors include environmental conditions that occur in both the development process that supports or not.
The contradiction between the experts to indicate which factors are more influential on the formation characteristics / behavior of individuals. As an example of the influence of genetic / heredity in the development of behavioral differences based on gender. In fact, boys tend to be more active, have the initiative, aggressive and physically oriented in the manipulation of objects. While girls tend to observe the environment rather than manipulate objects, and they are watching, listening and verbalizing. Girls tend to mature physically, especially psychological control that tends to function efficiently.
The amount of genetic influence does not mean that minimize environmental impact. In fact, a child who is active and has a brother or older son chose to spend his time playing physical fights, but children who do not have to spend a lot of friends playing time to observe / study the physical environment. The fact is supported by Hesmann et. 1984; stouthamer-Patterson and Loeber. 1984; and Steinmetz.1977 which states that the boy who was raised by environmental brutal / sadistic likely to have an action that leads to fights and unpleasant actions against others (bullying). While Maccoby and Martin, 1983; Rohner and Nielsen, 1978; Staub, 1979) states that children are the same, but brought up in a pleasant environment, be more human, tend to be confident, but not aggressive and tend to be leaders. Based on this, although the influence of biological / genetic inevitably shape individual behavior and social, environmental influences interact with genetic ultimately affect the habit. In some cases, both factors have an impact that can not be separated from one another. For example in the following two cases: a child who is born perfect (without defects) are certain to be a cheerful, if the environment is always denounced all his actions. Or if a child is born in a handicapped condition can also be certain to be a jovial, if supported by a comfortable environment. In this case can not be sure which is more influential.
Therefore, in terms of education or teaching and learning process is important to study the factors that influence the development of individuals both genetic and environmental. So that educators can determine the attitude in dealing with problems at every stage of individual development.